Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana(PMGSY):
ü Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) was launched on 25th December 2000.
ü It is a nationwide plan in India to provide good all-weather road connectivity to unconnected villages of more than 500 persons in the rural areas (250 persons in the hilly and desert areas).
ü It is a 100% Centrally Sponsored Scheme.
ü Allocations under Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) increased by 59 per to Rs.12,000 crore in the Union Budget 2009-10.
Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana (RGGVY):
ü It was launched on 4th April 2005 for attaining the National Common Minimum Programme (NCMP) goal of providing access to electricity to all households in the country in five years by merging “Accelerated Electrification of one lakh Villages and one crore Households” and the “Minimum Needs Programme (MNP)”.
ü Under the programme, 90% grant is provided by Govt. of India and 10% as loan by Rural Electrification Corporation (REC) to the State Governments.
ü Rural Electrification Corporation (REC) is the nodal agency for the programme.
ü The scheme aims at electrification of over 1 lakh un-electrified villages and providing electricity connections to 2.34 crore rural households. The estimated cost of the scheme is approximately Rs. 51,000 crore.
ü All the BPL families are eligible for free connections under the scheme.
ü Allocation under Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana (RGGVY) increased by 27% to Rs.7000cr in the Union Budget 2009-10.
Indira Awaas Yojana(IAY):
ü Indira Awaas Yojana (IAY) was launched during 1985-86 as a sub-scheme of Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP) and continued as a sub-scheme of Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (JRY) since its launching from April, 1989.
ü It has been delinked from the JRY and has been made an independent scheme with effect from January 1, 1996.
ü The objective of IAY is primarily to provide grant for construction of houses to members of Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes, freed bonded labourers and also to non-SC/ST rural people living below poverty line.
ü Funding of IAY is shared between the Centre & State in the ratio of 75:25.
ü The financial assistance provided for new construction under IAY is Rs.35,000/- per unit for the plain areas & Rs.38,500/- for the hilly/difficult areas.
ü Allocation under Indira Awaas Yojana (IAY) increased by 63% to 8,800 cr in the Union Budget 2009-10.
ü Bharat Nirman, a programme to build rural infrastructure, was launched by the Government of India in 2005.
ü Phase I of the programme was implemented in the period 2005-06 to 2008-09. Phase II is being implemented from 2009-10 to 2011-12.
ü Bharat Nirman comprises of six components:
iv)Rural Drinking Water Supply
ü Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana(PMGSY) for Rural Roads , Rajiv Gandhi Vidyutikaran Yojana(RGVY) for Rural Electrification & Indira Awas Yojana(IWY) for Rural Housing come under Bharat Nirman.
ü Bharat Nirman programme of six schemes for the development of rural infrastructure is being stepped up by 45% in Union Budget 2009-10.
Pradhan Mantri Adarsh Gram Yojana(PMAGY):
ü It is a new scheme launched in the Union Budget 2009-10 by the Union Government on a pilot basis for integrated development 0f 1,000 villages, each having more than 50% SC population.
ü There are about 44,000 villages in which the population of scheduled castes is above 50 per cent.
ü If the pilot scheme is successful the scheme will be expanded to remaining villages.
ü An amount of Rs.100 crore has been allocated for this Scheme in the Union Budget 2009-10.
National Rural Health Mission (NRHM):
ü The National Rural Health Mission (NRHM), launched in 2006 as the central government flagship project that would dramatically change the healthcare system in rural India.
ü The objective of National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) is to provide accessible, affordable, accountable, effective and reliable health care, especially to the poor and the vulnerable sections of the population in rural areas.
ü The NRHM covers the entire country, with special focus on 18 States where the challenge of strengthening poor public health systems and thereby improving key health indicators is the greatest.
ü Allocation under National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) increased by Rs.2,057 crore amounting to 14,064 crore in the Union Budget 2009-10.
Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA):
ü One of the key components of the National Rural Health Mission is to provide every village in the country with a trained female community health activist – ‘ASHA’ or Accredited Social Health Activist for every village with a population of 1000.
ü ASHA will take steps to create awareness and she will counsel women on birth preparedness, importance of safe delivery, breastfeeding and complementary feeding, immunization, contraception and prevention of common infections including Reproductive Tract infection/Sexually Transmitted Infection (RTIs/STIs) and care of the young child.
ü The ASHA will be trained to work as an interface between the community and the public health system.
ü ASHA must primarily be a woman resident of the village – married/ widowed/ divorced, preferably in the age group of 25 to 45 years.
National Rural Employment Guarantee Act(NREGA):
ü The National Rural Employment Guarantee Act or NREGA is an Indian job guarantee scheme, enacted by legislation on August 25, 2005.
ü This act was introduced with an aim of improving the purchasing power of the rural people, primarily semi or un-skilled work to people living in rural India, whether or not they are below the poverty line.
ü The scheme provides a legal guarantee for one hundred days of employment in every financial year to adult members of any rural household willing to do public work-related unskilled manual work at the statutory minimum wage of Rs.100 per day.
ü The NREGA achieves twin objectives of rural development and employment.
ü Around one-third of the stipulated work force must be women.
ü The scheme started from February 2, 2006 in 200 districts, was expanded to cover another 130 districts in 2007-2008 and eventually covered all 593 districts in India in 2008.
ü It has been renamed as Mahatma Gandhi Rural Employment Guarantee Act on 2nd October, 2009.
ü Allocation under NREGS increased by 144% to 39,100 cr in the Union Budget 2009-10.
Sarva Siksha Abhiyan(SSA):
ü The scheme of SSA was launched in 2001.
ü It is a flagship programme of the Government of India pioneered by Atal Bihari Vajpayee for achievement of universalization of elementary education in a time bound manner.
ü The Abhiyan is to provide useful and relevant elementary education for children in the 6-14 age group by 2010.
ü The assistance under the programme of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan was on a 85:15 sharing arrangement during the Ninth Plan, 75:25 sharing arrangement during the Tenth Plan, and 50:50 sharing thereafter between the Central Government and the State Government except for 8 NE states.
ü The programme covers the entire country with special focus on educational needs of girls, SCs/STs and other children in difficult circumstances.
ü The programme seeks to open new schools in those places which do not have schooling facilities and strengthen existing school infrastructure through provision of additional class rooms, toilets, drinking water, maintenance grant and school improvement grant.
Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan(RMSA):
ü Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) which is the most recent initiative of Government of India to achieve the goal of universalisation of secondary education (USE) - classes VIII to X.
ü The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyaan program set up by the government to bring elementary education to millions of children has been successful to a large extent, and has thus created a need for strengthening secondary education infrastructure across the country.
ü In Jan 2009 CCEA (Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs) approved the implementation.
ü It is announced in 2007 and it is proposed to implement during 11th Five Year plan
ü Rs.20,120 crore has been allocated for the Scheme during the 11th Five Year Plan.